Archive for the ‘Weight Loss’ Category

Grain products are often baked, and are rich s...

CARBOHYDRATES:

Carbohydrates (Carbs) are the primary source of energy for all body functions and muscular exertion.  Carbohydrates are the chief source of fuel for anaerobic activity (weight training, activities which raise heart rate above 60-70%).  It’s widely believed that in the absence of carbohydrates that the body will use fat for its fuel source.  While that is true, remember, only if you’re performing activity at a fat burning heart rate (aerobic- up to 60-65% VO2 Max).  Since carbs are our chief source of fuel, this leads to depletion of available and stored carbohydrates (glycogen) and creates a continual craving for this macronutrient.  Carbohydrates also help regulate the digestion and utilization of proteins and fats.

**Note: I intentionally refrain from using the term “cardio” in reference to lower intensity activity that targets body fat as a fuel source (as it’s so often used out of context).  I opt to use the term “aerobic” because by definition the word means simply, “with oxygen” or to oxidize fat for energy!  Whereas, cardiovascular activity is intended to train just that, cardiac tissues (of the heart), while this type of exercise is an absolute necessity for health, it’s not the focus of this particular article.  

**The depletion of stored carbohydrates (glycogen) does NOT occur within one workout or activity for the majority of individuals.  Mainly because the amount of glycogen the body can store is a relatively large amount.  The above statement in the first paragraph relating to this is made with individuals whom are consuming a restricted carbohydrate nutrition program, and are beginning their training sessions in a state of “carb depletion.”  Also, a state of depletion is relative, or at least dependent upon the type of activity being performed (e.g., long distance hike vs 45 min. weight training session).  Based on feedback from what you, the readers following this blog want, this article is intended to target those trying to reduce body fat levels and positively improve body composition.  I felt it necessary to clarify before continuing :))! 

The principle carbohydrates present in foods occur in the form of simple sugars, starches and cellulose.  Simple sugars, such as those in honey and fruits, are easily digested.  Double sugars, such as table sugar, require some digestive action but they are not nearly as complex as starches, such as those found in whole grains, rice and potatoes.

Starches require prolonged enzymatic action in order to be broken down into simple sugars (i.e., glucose) for utilization.  Cellulose, commonly found in the skins of fruits and vegetables, is largely indigestible by humans, but does play more then one very important role within the body.  The indigestible “roughage” is essentially just fiber(s), soluble and insoluble, fiber provides bulk for proper intestinal function and aides elimination.  Fiber is necessary for a number of other essential functions in the body, which I’ve discussed in previous articles.

All sugars and starches are converted by the body into simple sugars such as glucose or fructose.  All sugars must become glucose before the body can use them for energy.  Some glucose or “blood sugar” is used as fuel by tissues of the brain, nervous system and muscles.  A small amount of the glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles, any excess is converted to fat and stored throughout the body as a reserve energy source.  When total calorie intake exceeds output any extra carbohydrate, fat or protein is stored as body fat.

Carbohydrate “snacks” (Ugh, I can’t stand that term!) which contain large amounts of refined sugars and starches, typically promote a sudden rise in blood sugar levels, thereby providing the body with an immediate source of energy and few nutrients.  The “insulin spike” which shortly follows this reaction rapidly lowers the blood sugar levels resulting in uncontrollable cravings for more sugary foods and potentially causing fatigue, dizziness, nervousness and headaches (varying levels of hypoglycemia).

Diets (Lifestyles) that are high in refined carbs are usually low in vitamins, minerals and cellulose.  Foods such as white flour, white sugar, instant potatoes, etc. are lacking in B vitamins specifically, as well as other nutrients.  Overindulging in starchy and/or sweet foods gives you calories without the nutrients and robs you of the essential nutrients to metabolize these foods.  **I realize this really isn’t ground breaking new information for most of you, but so often the basics of the basics are overlooked or at best assumed to be understood.  For some it may be very well understood, however, it’s the others (the majority) that this article is targeting…this is not meant to be a criticism to anyone what so ever, I myself need regular reminders to stop overanalyzing and get back to the basics!  I hope this can be that reminder for some of you!!

Body Fat meter

The following is a hypothetical situation!  The beginning statistics are made up to create a scenario in order to give you an example of how and why, Why The “Typical Diet” Can’t and Won’t Work.  However, the example is a very common, or typical situation many people have suffered through many times over.  Although the initial statistics for the example “dieter” are not that of a specific individual (if it happens to be so, I assure you it was unintentional), the correlating results are exact in regards to this particular dieter and the example scenarios.

Starting Stats: Body Weight– 160 lbs.
Body Fat- 32%
Hunger Level- Satisfied
Current caloric intake to maintain body composition– 2,000 calories daily
Goal Weight- 125 lbs.

Diet Begins: Starting calories- 1,500 (500 calorie deficit); individual reduces calories to lose weight.

Body must now adjust to survive on 1,500 calories daily.  Internal survival mechanisms- Activated

Body adapts by getting rid of tissue that used calories- Muscle

The body now has less muscle to feed, therefore it can survive on 1,500 rather than 2,000 calories daily

Body no longer loses weight because it’s no longer in a caloric deficit.  The body now receives and burns only 1,500 calories daily.

Individual must drop to a new energy deficit to continue to lose weight (cut more calories)

Diet Adjustment: New Maintenance- 1,500 calories
New diet- 1,000 calories daily; 500 calorie deficit

Body must repeat cycle of muscle and fat loss until it’s able to function on 1,000 calories per day as it did consuming 1,500 calories

Weight Loss
Starts Again: Now able to run on 1,000 calories, the body is closer to starvation and therefore activates energy saving tactics- Endocrine system
slows, more then 50% of weight loss is muscle tissue which leads to lethargy.  Decrease in energy levels leads to decreased
activity.  Fewer calories are burned due to lack of activity and loss of muscle tissue.

Final Plateau:  At this point there’s nowhere else to go.  Calories can’t continue to decrease; a significant loss of fat burning tissue has been lost
(muscle); slowing the Endocrine system slows;decreased energy.  Weight loss is virtually impossible and weight gain is inevitable
because the hunger is uncontrollable.

Temporary Results: Gross weight loss- 25 lbs.;  
Muscle loss- 15 lbs.; Fat loss- 10 lbs.

Final Stats: Body Weight-  135 lbs.
Body Fat- 30%
Hunger Level- Insatiable

Current caloric intake to maintain new body composition- 1,000 calories daily.  Basically, this person is a smaller version of his/her
former self, has a lower metabolic rate and is incurably hungry.

The body has adapted to 1,000 calories to maintain current body composition and activity.  As a result, and additional calories are
unnecessary and will be stored as fat.

Weight/Body Fat Gained: Continual hunger and new cravings will eventually will eventually result in an increase in caloric intake.  Body fat will increase to the original set point, or higher, in order to prepare the body for another bout with starvation (“typical diet”).

End Result
1 Year Later: 165 lbs.
38% Body Fat
Caloric intake necessary to maintain body composition- 1,500 calories daily; “Dieter” shops for another diet plan or magic formula.

It’s not difficult to see why people in general, albeit with only good intent, are not successful at maintaining prolonged changes in body composition.  On the surface, the original plan looks to be sound, consume less calories loss weight.  While I’ll never criticize a person for trying to lose weight, let’s look at why a “Lifestyle Plan” is a much better scenario then a “Typical Diet Plan.”

Caloric deficit was 2,000- 500 = 1,500 calories.  The plan was to burn 500 calories from fat tissue.  Let’s dissect what could happen if the body ONLY use fat to reach this caloric deficit.

1 pound of fat = 3,500 calories
500 calorie daily deficit x 7 days per week = 3,500 calories = 1 pound of fat loss weekly.

The body has 51 lbs. of fat (160 lbs. @ 32%).  If a person stays on this diet for one year (52 weeks) and only loses fat, this person would cease to exist in approximately 10 months.  If this were true, accidently eating below maintenance and depleting only fat stores (without the body attempting to compensate for the loss) would lead to the unintentional inability to exist.  Fortunately the body’s survival mechanisms prevent this from occurring by lowering metabolism (muscle loss).

Research indicates that during a prolonged energy deficit the average person loses muscle and fat until the point at which they have lost enough muscle (which again, burns calories) to exist on the new, reduced amount of calories.  This process is why it is not possible to accidentally cease to exist by simply eating different amounts of food.

A MORE EFFECTIVE FORMULA FOR ACHIEVING YOUR GOALS

The key to achieving cosmetic and/or fitness goals is to direct the body to use it’s stored fat to supply the extra calories needed to build or sustain muscle, therefore, simultaneously reducing fat stores; this is build or sustaining muscle at the expense of body fat.

The increase or maintenance of calorie burning tissue (muscle) increases the metabolic rate and avoids plateaus.

By feeding that muscle additional nutrition without increasing the calories we force the body to continue to use it’s fat stores until the desired body composition is reached.

-Excerpt from an article I read, thought I’d share…link below*

Picture a morbidly obese mouse, you know, the ones companies use to show as the “before” picture when marketing certain products.  Anyhow, let’s call him Jumbo. Jumbo is unique – he’s an ob/ob mouse. This is a mouse that becomes a type II diabetic, can’t stop eating, and packs away body fat like crazy. No matter how much you feed him, he won’t stop.
Poor Jumbo has a mutation in the gene coding for leptin – he’s totally missing it! His fat cells can’t properly communicate with his hypothalamus because he has no leptin. If you inject Jumbo with leptin, he’ll stop eating and lose weight, but the solution isn’t so simple for us non-mutants.  Most obese people don’t have missing or mutated leptin genes – they can make plenty of it. The problem is that in spite of leptin still finding and binding its receptors all over the body, no downstream message is sent. The system that senses leptin is broken.
This is called leptin resistance, a condition in which the brain can’t determine when body fat is at an okay level. The fat cells are sending leptin out to the hypothalamus to signal that fat stores are full. Leptin binds the receptors, but no downstream messages are sent. It’s like knocking on the door when nobody is home. In spite of all the extra body fat mass, the brain perceives starvation and orders fat storage. The kicker is that you’re also very hungry, and continue to eat more and more.
If you know anyone who just can’t stop eating like Jumbo, as tempting as it may be to instantly judge them, it’s likely not entirely their fault. Many obese people have metabolic systems that are simply broken. You can’t outrun Mother Nature, and if the leptin signaling is messed up, you can only control yourself so much.

 

For full article by John Meadows CSCS check out:  <http://www.t-nation.com/free_online_article/most_recent/control_leptin_and_control_your_leanness&cr=&gt;

Help me Help YOU!.

The Forbidden (timing of) Fruit!.

Human Energy Systems & Metabolism.

You’re Being Lied To…By The Scale!.

    One of my early mentors in bodybuilding used a phrase to explain ones relationship w/ the scale.  “The scale doesn’t lie, but it sure don’t tell the truth!”  How is that possible!??  Allow me to start by tackling the age old question- “What’s the difference between losing weight and losing fat?”  The common belief is that if you simply reduce your caloric intake you will lose weight and change your body composition.  This approach becomes flawed very quickly!

“Action is the fundamental key to all success.” -Pablo Picasso

    When the body experiences a continual decrease in caloric intake, it will lose both fat and muscle.  As a result, the numbers on the scale will drop twice as quickly.  However, muscle comprises a machinery necessary to burn fat.  If you lose this fat burning machinery, your body will not be able to maintain the weight loss (less muscle = fewer calories burned).
When attempting to lose “weight” the primary goal is the retention or increase of the present lean muscle tissue, which will enable you to burn more fat and eat more food.  Typically, when designing a weight loss program often times people initially state that they won’t be able to consume the amount of food recommended.  However, it generally does not take long for most clients to become accustomed to, and enjoy the quantity of food.  Additionally, the elevation in caloric intake becomes necessary in order to increase lean muscle mass.  As previously stated…by increasing your lean muscle tissue this will increase ones ability to burn fat!

“Believe in yourself!  Have faith in your abilities!  Without a humble but reasonable confidence in your own powers you cannot be successful or happy.” -Norman Vincent Peale

Bottom Line…
Accomplishing muscle hypertrophy and/or body fat reduction requires continual manipulation of food consumed (potential energy measured in calories) and food used (work measured in calories).  When these two factors are equal (energy balance), there is no change in body mass.  This is also the state the body constantly strives to maintain.  In other words, every time the human body experiences an energy imbalance (mandatory for body mass change) it’s job is to bring the energy back into balance.  The body accomplishes this by adapting to the exercise and/or energy input (diet) and ultimately reaches a plateau.  At this point, an adjustment must be made in the energy output (exercise) and/or energy input (diet), if progress is desired.  The bodies obligatory response to energy imbalance creates the need for continual manipulation of food and work in order to achieve continuous progress.
The key to favorably altering body composition is to direct the body to use it’s stored fat to supply the extra calories needed to sustain or build muscle, therefore, simultaneously reducing the fat stores.  This is building or sustaining muscle at the expense of body fat.  This is the art and science (the fun stuff) of favorably altering body composition until you reach your goal.